Modulating the mixed potential for developing biosensors: Direct potentiometric determination of glucose in whole, undiluted blood

Cánovas, R., Blondeau, P., Andrade, F.J.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2020, 163 article number 112302. Doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2020.112302

This work presents a novel strategy to control the mixed potential that allows the development of a potentiometric biosensor for the direct detection of glucose in whole, undiluted blood without any sample pretreatment. The accurate measurement of blood sugar levels in a single drop of whole blood with excellent recovery is presented.

Paper-based Potentiometric Biosensor for Monitoring Galactose in Whole Blood

Mohamed Bouri, Julio C. Zuaznabar-Gardona, Marta Novell, Pascal Blondeau, Francisco J. Andrade
Electroanalysis 2020, doi: 10.1002/elan.202060285

A filter paper sputtered with a layer of Pt and subsequently coated with a Nafion® membrane is used as working electrode. The mixed potential of the Pt electrode allows the detection of H2O2 generated by the oxidation of galactose in the presence of the galactose oxidase enzyme. This provides a simple and mediator‐free approach method. The system shows sensitivity values of −62.8±9.4 mV/decade of galactose in the range from 0.3 to 31.6 mM, well within the clinical relevant range. MnO2 nanoparticles were added to decrease the interference from ascorbic acid so that validation of the sensor in whole blood samples was performed with good recovery.

Controlling the mixed potential of polyelectrolyte-coated platinum electrodes for the potentiometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

Jhonattan F. Baez, Matthew Compton, Sylviane Chahrati, Rocío Cánovas, Pascal Blondeau, Francisco J. Andrade
Analytica Chimica Acta 2020, 1097(8) 204-213, doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2019.11.018

The use of a Pt electrode coated with a layer of Nafion has been described in previous works as an attractive way to perform the potentiometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Despite the attractive features of this approach, the nature of the non-Nernstian response of this system was not properly addressed. This work provides a phenomenological view of the problem. A general framework to understand the factors that affect the potentiometric response is provided. Experimental evidence showing that the use of polyelectrolyte coatings are a powerful way to control the mixed potential open new ways for the development of robust and simple potentiometric sensors.

A novel point-of-care device for blood potassium detection of patients on dialysis: Comparison with a reference method

Marta Novell, Nayra Rico, Pascal Blondeau, Miquel Blasco, Adrià Maceira, José Luis Bedini, Francisco Javier Andrade, Francesc Maduell
Letter to the editor in Nefrología, doi: 10.1016/j.nefro.2019.06.002

Determination of potassium levels in serum is routinely performed in clinical labs, as it is a critical parameter and abnormal potassium concentrations may lead to fatal cardiac consequences. An immediate test for determination of blood potassium may contribute to prevent such critical issues, for example, arrhythmias. Therefore we have developed and tested a novel point-of-care (POC) device that provides a simple and highly affordable way of measuring potassium levels in a single drop of blood outside the clinical laboratory. This POC device has demonstrated a good correlation with the reference method, proving that it can be an alternative for specific situations where an immediate response is required.

Ionophore-Based Optical Sensor for Urine Creatinine Determination

Miguel M. Erenas, Inmaculada Ortiz-Gómez, Ignacio de Orbe-Payá, Daniel Hernández-Alonso, Pablo Ballester, Pascal Blondeau, Francisco J. Andrade, Alfonso Salinas-Castillo, and Luis Fermín Capitán-Vallvey
ACS Sensors 2019, 4, 421-426
doi: 10.1021/acssensors.8b01378

An optical disposable sensor for monitoring creatinine levels in urine is described in this paper. The new sensor displays a good response time to creatinine (approximately 3 min) over a wide dynamic range (from 1 × 10−5 to 1 × 10−2 M). Moreover, the optical selectivity coefficients obtained for creatinine over common cations present in urine meet the requirements for real sample measurements, providing a simple, quick, cost-effective, and selective alternative to the conventional methodology based on Jaffe’s reaction.

Distributed electrochemical sensors: recent advances and barriers to market adoption

Rafael Hoekstra, Pascal Blondeau, Francisco J. Andrade
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2018,  410, 4077-4089
doi: 10.1007/s00216-018-1104-9

We present a brief survey of key challenges and advances in the development of distributed electrochemical sensors for liquid samples, geared towards applications in healthcare and wellbeing, environmental monitoring, and homeland security.

A disposable, simple, fast and low-cost paper-based biosensor and its application to the determination of glucose in commercial orange juices

Leonor Guadarrama-Fernández, Marta Novell, Pascal Blondeau, Francisco J.Andrade
Food Chemistry 2018, 265, 64-69
doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.05.082

A new biosensor for monitoring glucose levels in beverages is presented. The methodology presented herein does not require complex samples treatment, offering an alternative to conventional methods, particularly for determinations performed with minimal expertise and without a laboratory infrastructure.